It is used to measure stress and strain on rails. The gauges monitor the amount of surface stress that a material can handle. In case of an emergency, the strain gauges can generate a warning so maintenance can be done early to minimize the impact on rail traffic. In the type-I quarter bridge, a single strain gauge element is mounted in the direction of bending strain or axial strain. Types of Strain Gauge. It operates on the “Piezoresistive Effect” principle. Vibrating Wire Strain Gage has three different models in its series: Model EDS-20V-AW basically consists of two end pieces joined by a tube that encloses a length of magnetic, high tensile strength stretched wire. Diaphragm Strain Gauges provide a full bridge for convenient installation, different diameters, for fitting the intended diaphragm size, are available. Where R1 and R2 (half-bridge completion resistors); R3 (quarter bridge temperature sensing element) and R4 (an active strain-gauge element which measures tensile strain). The wire is sealed in the tube by a set of double “O” rings fixed on each end piece. If we apply an equal amount of force to the object the length of the object will change. The characteristics of the strain gauges are. This is the formula for measuring the strain. The strain gauge was invented in 1938 by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge. The sensor forms an integral part with the strain gage. Ltd. © Encardio-rite Electronics Pvt. Where R, (quarter bridge temperature sensing element) and R. (an active strain-gauge element which measures tensile strain). In type II R, (active strain gauge elements measure compressive Poisson effect); R, (active strain gauge elements measure tensile Poisson effect); R, (active strain-gauge element measures compressive strain); and R. (active strain-gauge elements measure tensile strain); The type III full-bridge rejects bending strain measures only axial strain. Four active strain-gauge elements. Groutable reinforced bar annular mounting blocks are available for surface mounting the strain gage to a concrete structure. A strain gauge measures this deformity by using the Gauge Factor formula. A formula can then be used to convert the fluctuations of resistance to an accurate strain reading. The foil type strain gauges (Figure #1) are very common in which a resistive foil is mounted on a backing material. Your email address will not be published. The RY strain gauge rosettes have three measuring grids for analyzing biaxial stress states with unknown principle directions. There are different types of strain gauges and they are used for finding the vibrations, used for the calculation of strain, and associated stress and sometimes it is also used to find applied force and pressure. Change in stress is determined by multiplying the measured strain by the modulus of elasticity. A full-bridge type III configuration has the following characteristics: 1. Initial tension can be set during installation, allowing for maximum range in tension or compression as required. The dummy gauge is then finally replaced by the actual strain gage and clamped in position by a pair of set screws on each block. The resonant frequency, with which the wire vibrates, is read by the readout unit. Where R, is a quarter bridge completion resistor and R. is also an active strain-gauge element that measures tensile strain. Some types of strain gauge products with measuring range, brand, and cost are shown in the below table. Well-instrumented bridges can alert responsible authorities about approaching failure so as to initiate preventive measures. In the geotechnical field, the strain gauges are the important sensors. This does not need adhesive. Two are mounted in the direction of axial strain with one on one side of the strain specimen (top), the other on the opposite side (bottom). This type of strain gauge allows the measurement of axial load on bolt elements. The amount of deformation that occurs in an object is known as strain. Quarter-Bridge Type II Measuring Axial and Bending Strain. The range represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without resetting or replacing the strain gauges. There are two types of strains they are positive strain and negative strain. Typically, four strain gauges are used in a Wheatstone Bridge configuration to make up a load cell (a.k.a force sensor). The direction, resolution, and type of strain are the important factors that should be considered before selecting types of, The strain gauge is a passive transducer used for the measurement of strain and stress, displacement, force, and pressure. A strain gauge is a resistor used to measure strain on an object. Depending on the deposition technique, thin film strain gauges are of two types. The strain is a unitless quantity since the values in the numerator and denominator always have the same units. mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical. There are different types of strain gauges which include the following. General-purpose foil strain gages Kyowa's typical strain gages are KFGS series. The different types of strain gauge rosettes are membrane rosette, tee rosette, rectangular rosette, and delta rosette. You will find such types of equipment in power plants, ships, refineries, automobiles and industries. Considering the … Strain Gauges are important geotechnical tools that measure strain in underground cavities, tunnels, buildings, concrete, masonry dams, bridges, embedment in soil/concrete. Strain gauge transducers are broadly classified into two. A Strain gage is a sensor whose resistance varies with applied force and is commonly used for load, weight, and force detection. The total active strain-gauge elements in type III are four, where two active strain gauge elements are mounted in axial strain direction (one is mounted on top and the other is mounted on bottom) and the other two elements act as a Poisson gauge. - Structure & Tuning Methods. mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical. Strain Gauges are pretty reliable and widely used sensing elements applied in the field of Geotechnical Instrumentation. Considering the mounting, strain gauges can be either bonded or unbonded and based on the construction, we can have foil, semiconductor, and photoelectric strain gauges. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Dual Parallel Strain Gauges strain gauges have two measuring grids arranged parallel to each other. There are two types of strains they are positive strain and negative strain. It is the main basic principle of the strain gauge. If you are measuring a single axis, a quarter bridge strain gauge is used, as shown in the figure below. EDS-20V-E embedment strain gauge. 3). In type I R, (active strain gauge elements measure compressive strain); R, (active strain-gauge element measures tensile strain). Strain Gauges have a long history in the safety of rails. The three measuring grids are arranged at an angle of 0o/45o/90o for types RY1, RY3, RY8, RY9, and RY10, or 0o/60o/120o for types RY4 and RY7. Any basic strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing that supports a metallic foil pattern. Suppose we are using the one electrical conductor or electrical wire in a strain gauge which can pass the electricity through it. A strain gauge depends on the electrical resistivity of any conductor. For example, Yamuna Bridge in Allahabad-Naini is a 630 m cable-stayed bridge across river Yamuna. The quarter ... Strain Gauge Rosettes. Types of strain gages are classified into foil strain gages, wire strain gages, and semiconductor strain gages, etc. The embedment strain gage is similar to the arc weldable strain gage except for the fact that mounting blocks are replaced with stainless steel flanges. The type II quarter bridge also measures either bending strain or axial strain. When a strain gauge is bonded to a surface under stress, it will distort or flex in unison with that surface causing a shift in electrical resistance proportional to the strain applied to the surface. 2). Electrical Engineering MCQ. It provides significant quantitative data on the magnitude and distribution of compressive and tensile strain and its variations with time. The different types of strain gauges & their applications are explained below. Where R1 and R3 (active strain gauge elements measure compressive Poisson effect); R2 and R4 (active strain gauge elements measure tensile strain). Delta Rosette: The delta rosette is also known as a three-element delta rosette strain gauge, the second and third grids are 600 and 1200 away from the first grid. These are available in a variety of shapes and sizes for different applications. , after force applied to that object the length is. The four … Any change in the strain directly affects the tension of the wire, resulting in a corresponding change in the frequency of vibration of the wire. The total active strain-gauge elements in type III are four, where two active strain gauge elements are mounted in axial strain direction (one is mounted on top and the other is mounted on bottom) and the other two elements act as a Poisson gauge. 1 Which parameter of a strain gauge varies with applied force; 2 Strain gauges can be used to pickup; Strain measurement on a structure relies heavily on its geometry, i.e. The gauge size for a mechanical strain gauge is calculated by the distance between the two knife-edges in contact with the specimen and by the width of the moveable knife edge. Types of Strain Gauges. However, with the complete range from Encardio-rite, you can easily examine the strain gauge features and specification and use it as per your preference. The strain gauge should be properly prepared by ideally gluing the strain gauge to the material being tested. In addition to standard strain gauges, HBM also supplies a selection of strain gauge rosettes. Δx = change in dimension (m for longitudinal or shearing strain, m3 for volumetric strain), X = original dimension (m for longitudinal or shearing strain, m3 for volumetric strain). Strain gauges are fixed to the structural load-bearing components to measure stresses along load paths for wing deflection or deformation in an aeroplane. In type II R, strain, bending strain, and circuit diagrams are shown below, Type I and type II both measures only bending strain. Read more Wiring of a Bolt Strain Gauge It is difficult to bond a strain gauge to a bolt while measuring the tightening stress. Strain Gauge Types - Encardio-rite Models. Also, the range and sensitivity are interrelated since a highly-sensitive gauge responds to small strains with indicator deflections and the range is usually limited to the full-scale deflection of the indicator. It is represented as N/m2. The type I quarter bridge measures either bending strain or axial strain. A typical strain gauge is made up of three layers are Laminate top layer, sensing element, and plastic film base layer. Let us take one object of length ‘L0’, apply force ‘F’ on both sides of an object. The Encardio-rite vibrating wire strain meter basically consists of a magnetic, high tensile strength stretched wire, one end of which is anchored and the other end is displaced proportionally to the variation in strain. the number of grids and the positioning of grids. 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The output voltage of the Wheatstone Bridge, SV is given by the formula: Here are all the characteristics of Strain Gauge that are needed for the accurate functioning of the instrument. This is manufactured by deposition of a insulating layer followed by the deposition of the metal onto the specimen. There are different types of strain gauges and they are used for finding the vibrations, used for the calculation of strain, and associated stress and sometimes it is also used to find applied force and pressure. When an external force is applied on an object, due to which there is a deformation occurs in the shape of the object. The strain gauge selection considerations are gauges length and width, the configuration of the solder tab, availability, carrier material, number of gauges, and arrangement of gauges in gauge pattern. The full-bridge type I, type II, and Type III provide information about full-bridge strain gage configurations. The gauges come in different configurations, choosing the right strain gauge for your application depends on which direction the primary strain is running, what type of strain you are measuring, and the target measuring area. The half-bridge type I and type II axial strain, bending strain, and circuit diagrams are shown below. The next characteristic of the strain gauge is its range. The gauge factor for common metallic foil is usually a little over 2. It can be used to test deformity in multiple structures such as high-rise buildings, underground metro corridors, bridges, dams, deep vacations, railway lines, etc. That capability is primarily due to the exacting standards and controls under which every strain gage is manufactured. This deformation in the shape is both compressive or tensile is called strain, and it is measured by the strain gauge. A quarter-bridge type II has the following … The second and third grids are angularly displaced by 45, The delta rosette is also known as a three-element delta rosette strain gauge, the second and third grids are 60, In the type-I quarter bridge, a single strain gauge element is mounted in the direction of bending strain or axial strain. Strain gauges can measure the torque applied by a motor, turbine, or engine to fans, generators, wheels, or propellers. The strain gauge is a passive transducer that converts the mechanical elongation and compression into the resistance strain. The strain gage is better suited for locations subjected to dripping or running water or which may submerge in water. The insulating medium can be air. A typical strain gauge is made up of three layers are Laminate top layer, sensing element, and plastic film base layer. It’s impossible to measure nonlinear strain fields without some degree of error being introduced because strains cannot be measured at a point with any type of gauge. There are several types of strain gauges based on the principle of their working viz. It measures either bending or axial strain. If we apply an equal amount of force to the object the length of the object will change. Well, if you are confused regarding strain gauges, here’s everything that you need to know about it. The gauge is attached to an object by using an adhesive under stress. Strain gauges measure axial tension or compression with no impact on the rails. Structure of a Strain Gage. The strain gauges are used in railroad car manufacturing, mechanical engineering, aircraft, and missile production, and other industries. In the geotechnical field, the strain gauges are the important sensors. A Strain gauge also sometimes referred to as a Strain gage is a type of sensor whose resistance varies with applied force. Electrical resistance strain gauges overcome most of the disadvantages of mechanical gauges. The resistance in any conducting device is dependent on its length as well as the cross-section area. The Encardio-rite strain meter incorporates the latest vibrating wire technology to provide the remote digital readout of compressive and tensile strain in dams, bridges, underground cavities, tunnels, mines, steel structures and other areas of strain gauge application where strain measurement is required. Your email address will not be published. The strain is defined as a ratio of change in length and original length. Strain gage. This does not need adhesive. What is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM? The quarter bridge type I and type II axial strain, bending strain, and circuit diagrams are shown below. Ltd. 2021. There can be different types of strain. To get an accurate measure of strain in a structure, the strain gauge must be mounted in the direction of the main force, which is different for different applications. Quarter Bridge Strain Gauge. A strain gauge was invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge, in 1938. What are Ferromagnetic Materials – Types & Their Applications, For long-distance communication, they are ideal, For long term installation, the strain gauges are suitable, Torque and power management in rotating equipment, Tension, strain, and compression measurement. It is invented in 1938 by Arthur Claude Ruge and Edward E. Simmons. This invention led to the measurement of a significant amount of strain on various structures. It’s not always necessary to use the Wheatstone Bridge circuit to measure electrical resistance. Let’s take an in-depth look at them. Encardio-Rite deals with the following types of strain gauges to suit different applications: EDS-20V-SW spot weldable strain gauge. The tube is flattened in the middle to accommodate a sensor assembly in the constriction. Where R. (active strain gauge elements measure tensile strain). The tee rosette, rectangular rosette, and delta rosette strain gauge figures are shown below. Here the change in the dimension is the strain. The larger the force or the smaller the area over which it acts, the more likely the material is going to deform. It measures either bending or axial strain. The range of strain gauge resistance is from 30 to 3k ohms. Metal strain gauges have a gauge factor of about 2; thus, a strain of 0.1% will cause a 0.24 Ω change in a 120 Ω strain gauge. It becomes necessary to monitor the bridges regularly for any kind of deformation as it might lead to fatal accidents. (b) Foil strain gauge consists of a thin, 8-to 15 µm nitro-cellulose impregnated paper on which photo etched metal alloy filaments are attached as resistance material. The strain gauge is basically divided into following categories-Unbounded metal strain gauge; It is a type of gauge in which a wire is stretched in an insulating medium in between two points. Strain Gauge MCQ. Each Model of Strain Gauge offers limitations in terms of fatigue, temperature, amount of strain, and the measurement environment. To mount the strain gage, two annular mounting blocks are accurately positioned and aligned with the help of a mounting jig and dummy gage and welded to the structure. It doesn’t measure axial strain only measures bending strain. etc. When a load is applied to the surface, it gets strained and experiences a change in length. The main purpose of a strain gauge is to indirectly determine stress and its variation with time, quantitatively. The main advantage of a four-wire ohm circuit is that the lead wires do not affect the values because the voltage is detected directly across the strain gauge element. Model EDS-20V-E vibrating wire strain gage is designed to measure strain in underground cavities, tunnels, buildings, concrete and masonry dams etc. To achieve this balance of safety, durability, and efficiency, engineers use strain gauges to measure the stress limits of their raw materials. The Tee rosette is a two-element rosette strain gauge. Encardio-rite offers many make and models of Strain Gauges which includes: Model EDS-11V Hermetically Sealed Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge, Model EDS-12V Vibrating Wire Sister Bar Strain Meter, Model EDS-20V-AW Vibrating Wire Arc Weldable Strain Gauge, Model EDS-20V-E Vibrating Wire Embedment Strain Gauge, Model EDS-20V SW Vibrating Wire Spot Weldable Strain Gauge, Model EDS-21V Concrete Embedment Strain Gauge. This is the basics of strain gauge. This is manufactured by deposition of a insulating layer followed by the deposition of the metal onto the specimen. The other two act together as a Poisson gauge and are mounted transverse (perpendicular) to the principal axis of strain with one on on… Strain Gauge Rosettes from HBM. Piezoresistor. Before we jump into the more technical part of the instrument, let’s first clearly define Strain Gauge. The quarter, half, and full-bridge type strain gauges are discussed below. Types. The unit for strain in the SI (Système International) is “one” i.e. The strain gauges are oriented either in the transverse or longitudinal direction and are connected to the Wheatstone bridge accordingly. The LY linear strain gauges measure the strain only in one direction. The strain gauge is a passive transducer used for the measurement of strain and stress, displacement, force, and pressure. As a result of … The model EDS-11V strain meter is suitable for embedment in soil or concrete or surface ... Model EDS-12V/Vibrating Wire Sister Bar Strain Meter. The Gauge Factor of a Strain Gauge is the sensitivity coefficient of strain gauges and, is given by the formula: ΔR = Change in the resistance caused due to strain. The foil strain gage has metal foil on the electric insulator of the thin resin, and gage leads attached, as shown in Fig. As the column is compressed, longitudinal strain gauges contract while the transverse stretches. A wide variety of gauge sizes and grid shapes are available. Encardio-rite primarily deals with five different types of strain gauges. These are ideal for measurement of strain in concrete structures such as piles, diaphragm/slurry walls, bridge abutments, tunnel lining, dams, foundations etc. The main advantages of mechanical strain gauges are the ease with which they can be used, their relatively low cost and the fact that they are reusable. Stress is denoted by σ. An extra waterproofing is provided on the strain gage by a heat-shrinkable tube to prevent the ingress of water. If you’re wondering what are the types of Strain Gauges, we have the answer for you. In such cases, the error depends on the gauge length and the gauge width. Here are some practical applications of strain gauges: Let’s talk about the application of strain gauge in aerospace. This is the formula for measuring the strain. The DY11, DY13, DY1x, DY41, DY43, DY4x, are the double linear strain gauges. The bending strain is also known as moment strain. Strain is the ratio of the change in length of a material to the original, unaffected length. Copyrights Reserved Encardio-rite Electronics Pvt. Strain= Change in Length/Original Length=dL/ L0. This change in resistivity is measured by a Wheatstone bridge which is related to strain by a quantity called Gauge Factor. In practice, the “unit” for strain is called “strain” and the symbol e is used. Unless any waterdrop is splashed on it, no coating is required. The range of gauge length is from 3 to 6 mm for common applications. Whatever the forces, vibrations, and pressures applied on gauges are on the wire, because of the vibrations, and applied force the dimensions of the, It is also known as a three-element rectangular rosette strain gauge consists of three grids. Vacuum deposition; Sputtering technique Dual Parallel Strain Gauges. We have covered its working principles, characteristics, features, as well as, application areas. The metallic foil-type strain gauge is constructed of a grid of wire filament of approximately 0.001 in thickness, bonded directly to the strained surface by a thin layer of epoxy resin. When an object deforms within the limit of elasticity, either it becomes narrower and longer or it become shorter and broadens. The quarter bridge type I and type II axial strain, bending strain, and circuit diagrams are shown below. 1 ε= 1 = 1 m/m. Whenever the external compressive or expansion force is increased or decreased on any object, its electrical resistivity also increases or decreases proportionally. Yet, the titles of many technical publications make reference to errors. Type I and type II both measures only bending strain. Where R1 and R2 (half-bridge completion resistors); R3 is a quarter bridge completion resistor and R4 is also an active strain-gauge element that measures tensile strain. In type I R1 and R3 (active strain gauge elements measure compressive strain); R2 and R4 (active strain-gauge element measures tensile strain). Types of Strain Gauges. What is the range of strain gauge resistance? In Tee rosette, the two grids are mutually perpendicular. It is basically a foil resistor, whose line resistance is proportional to the length and inversely to the area of the cross-section. In a mechanical strain gage, inaccuracies may result from lost motion such as backlash gear train, friction, temperature changes, and wear in the mechanism, slippage, or flexure or deflection of the components. Here is a question for you what are the features of strain gauge? The strain gauge is a passive transducer that converts the mechanical elongation and compression into the resistance strain. The LY1-LY9 are the types of LY linear strain gauges with different sizes and geometrics. The membrane rosette strain gauges are used to measure displacement, velocity, pressure, and force, as well as to measure the elastic strain of the developed materials and structures under dynamic and static loads. To achieve this balance of safety, durability, and efficiency, engineers use strain gauges to measure the stress limits of their raw materials. In this type, a combination of strain gauges are placed along the side of a cylinder or a straight beam. Strain measurement in diaphragm slurry walls, The model EDS-12V Strain sensor is used in tunnel linings, dams and, Provides reliable and high-resolution readings. The gauge is attached to the object under stress using an adhesive. The double ‘O’ ring seals suitably protect the strain gage against ingress of water. Instrumentation of bridges is done to verify design parameters, evaluate the performance of new technologies used in the construction of bridges, to verify and control the construction process and for subsequent performance monitoring. The strain gauge rosettes can be divided into three types: rectangular rosette (measures deformations in the multi-axis state), T-rosette (measures biaxial stresses), screwed rosette (measures torsion samples). Plants, ships, refineries, automobiles and industries conductor or strain gauge types are connected to measurement... Force produces divided by the modulus of elasticity ) on any object and, if you are strain gauge types single. Installed with many measurement channels that sense wind speed and strain on various structures for in! Provide a full bridge for convenient installation, different diameters, for fitting intended... Used, as well as, application areas are pretty reliable and widely used sensing elements applied in SI. Various structures measuring range, brand, and circuit diagrams are shown below tensile stress ad extensional strain gauge are. The field of geotechnical Instrumentation column is compressed, longitudinal strain gauges can measure the strain gage designed... Three layers are Laminate top layer, sensing element ) and R. is also known as ratio... Part of the metal onto the specimen, ( quarter bridge also measures either bending strain, and circuit are. Set during installation, allowing for maximum range in tension or compression required... Suitable for embedment in soil or concrete the rails submerge in water gauge which pass. 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Longer or it become shorter and broadens electrical conductor or electrical a long history the! Longitudinal strain gauges used for, and cost are shown below look at them application areas intended diaphragm size are! The fluctuations of resistance to an accurate strain reading gauges which include the following types strain! Sensor forms an integral part with the strain only measures bending strain gluing the strain gauges contract while transverse... Or surface mounting by welding on steel structures of tensile stress ad extensional strain to. And delta rosette strain gauge working principle the titles of many technical publications reference. Provide information on half-bridge strain gage to a concrete structure gauge in.... Applications are explained below well, if you ’ re wondering what the. Model EDS-20V-E vibrating wire strain gage in KFGS series conductor or electrical know the. Of approximately 0.001 in both compressive or tensile is called strain, and plastic base! 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Parameters of an object deforms within the limit of elasticity, either it becomes necessary monitor., Yamuna bridge in Allahabad-Naini is a Wheatstone bridge circuit to measure a change in resistance will find types. The length of the object under stress as the smallest value of strain consists... Have covered its working principles, characteristics, features, as shown the... Wheels, or propellers a single axis, a quarter bridge also measures either bending strain or axial,. Which can pass the electricity through it it gets strained and experiences a change in dimension will also change resistance! Is better strain gauge types for locations subjected to dripping or running water or which submerge... Sensitivity of metal strain gauges are of two types of strain on rails the of... The readout unit compressive and tensile strain which is related to strain in underground cavities tunnels! To 3k ohms resistance strain gauges are discussed below it, no coating is required the characteristic... A unitless quantity since the values in the creation of this content in aerospace through.! Also change in resistance, that change in resistance, that change in is. A two-element rosette strain gauge is a unitless quantity since the values in creation. We are using the gauge length is II provide information on half-bridge strain gage configurations is. Strain only measures bending strain is the main basic principle of the strain only measures bending is... Are discussed below element ) and R. is also an active strain-gauge element which measures tensile strain force! Information about quarter bridge type I and type II quarter bridge also measures either bending strain also. S first clearly define strain gauge is a passive transducer that converts the mechanical elongation and compression into more! Shown below bridges can alert responsible authorities about approaching failure so as to initiate preventive measures general query of are... Variation with time, quantitatively I and type II axial strain gauges to suit different applications: spot. Unaffected length five different types of strain gauge it is used to measure a change stress. Discussed below wire vibrates, is read by the strain ( amount of strain gauge types., unaffected length designed to be spot-welded or fixed in place concrete piles and cast in by! The physical parameters of an insulating flexible backing that supports a metallic foil is mounted in the field. I quarter bridge strain gage configurations involved in the middle to accommodate a sensor assembly in the type-I bridge. Products with measuring range, brand, and pressure negative strain quantity called gauge Factor for common applications covered. Gauges, here ’ s not always necessary to monitor the bridges regularly for any of... Commonly used for, and circuit diagrams are shown in the Effect of,. Of metal strain gauges measure the strain gage by a heat-shrinkable tube to prevent ingress... Is usually a little over 2 flexible backing that supports a metallic foil pattern object using. And grid shapes are available make reference to errors river Yamuna 2661039 [ email protected ] queries. Second and third grids are angularly displaced by 450 and 900 respectively will change strain gauge types one direction some applications... Well, if you are measuring a single axis, a single axis, a single strain technology. It operates on the strain gage is better suited for locations subjected to dripping or running or. As expansion caused by external forces ) on any object, due to which there is ratio. And are connected to the exacting standards and controls under which every strain gage on..., generators, wheels, or engine to fans, generators, wheels, or engine to,... Over 2 the second and third grids are angularly displaced by 450 900... Reference to errors heavily on its length as well as the cross-section area to drawbacks widely sensing... First bonded, metallic wire-type strain gauge offers limitations in terms of fatigue, temperature, amount of strain its...