Traditionally it has been used mainly as an aggregate but for some types there are other applications, such as a raw material for cement or as a fertiliser. This type of cement has the advantages of lower energy cost, higher abrasion resistance, lower hydration heat evolution and higher later strength … Table 3 shows industrial production samples with their proportions, strengths and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) change trend at 7d is positively related to cement content. Due to its lower density the molten slag floats to the top in the furnace and thus it can be easily separated from the denser molten steel. In the main, the material is unrecovered except for small amounts used as aggregates and fluxes. Cement plants use various kinds of alternative fuels such as waste tyres, woodchips, plastic, oily rags and coke and make use of alternative raw materials, such as including various industrial wastes and spent catalysts. Producing energy-saving steel-slag cement can save energy, virgin natural resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85%. The material is usually used in the construction industry for the production of cement conglomerates and road foundations. As helpful recycled materials, iron and steel creating slag ar mainly utilized in fields associated with civil engineering, as an example, in cement, bed material, and concrete combination. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. The water absorption of the steel slag is greater than limestone. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. With the emergence of various new high-efficiency grinding equipment, especially the vertical mill, the high-efficiency and low-cost preparation of steel slag powder has become a reality, which can provide cement and concrete production enterprises with steel slag Besides, the minimum mass losses of samples are those with 50% of steel slag. Compressive strength tests were performed on samples containing slag ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent and cement contents of concrete 200, 300 and 350 kg/m3. the utilization of steel slag as aggregate in concrete. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. The basis of slag is limestone used as auxiliary material in the production of iron and steel. You must keep information about your waste steel slag recovery process and aggregate production methods for 2 years. The experiments manifest that steel slag is beneficial for the reinforcement of the strength and shrinkage performance of concrete, making it possible to replace aggregate. 1. Impurities in the mixture react with oxygen to form oxides and the interaction between oxides and lime and other components forms the slag. It is estimated that 115-180Mt of steel-slag is poured out annually worldwide and in addition to this previous accumulation of the material has created mountains of steel-slag. Granulated blast furnace slag is similar to the chemical composition of … It can replace silicon bath soil insulation packing and save cost. While there are many applications and benefits of slag cement, a few are highlighted below and detailed information sheets are located here. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the cement paste, indicating its dense micro-structure. Other properties and potential applications. Nippon steel sumitomo metal technical report no.109 july 2015-130-1.Introduction according to nippon slag associations statistics on the use of slag in 2012,1 the consumption of blast furnace slag was 1 390 000 tons for civil engineering, 18 220 000 tons for cement production, and 3 340 000 tons for sub-base course material.The consumption. The microstructure and elements distribution were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Above - Table 2: Alkalinity, activity and mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag. The … To learn more about how slag cement is created, click here. In addition to this, test results show that energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits a bigger increase in strength even in later stages, i.e., after 180 days, than conventional OPC. The application of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in cement production has already been proven as the most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cement production by replacing the same amount of clinker. Steel-slag with alkalinity greater than 1.8 is usually recommended. Slag cement, often called ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), is one of the most consistent cementitious materials used in concrete. Therefore, it is envisaged to use steel slag as a raw material for the cement production process to produce cement and to produce high-performance cement. Mingshu, T. 'The Possibility of Making Cement from Steelmaking Slag Based on Mineralogical Characteristics,' Nanjing Institute of Chemical Technology, 1973. In such preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30%, steel-slag around 30-40% and blastfurnace slag is around 40-50%. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In light of these results, it is reasonable to use steel-slag cement as a replacement for conventional cements in various applications such as general use, highway and road construction (both the surface layer and road base, in the latter case the content of steel slag can be increased to even greater proportions), large volume projects and mining and soil treatment projects. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. The higher the alkalinity, the more the reactive minerals and the higher its activity and thus the better it is for cement manufacturing. In this project 5%-10% of steel slag are replaced as cement. Above - Table 1: Typical chemical compositions by percentage of steel-slag, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and clinker.1. PBFSC is a kind of blended cement. Steel slag increases the hydration products, meanwhile reinforces the electrostatic interaction and bonding with cement. At present, the common drying method is to transport the steel slag mixture containing about 12% of water to the cement plant by car, and then use the combustion of coal to generate hot air for drying. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the Energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very low hydration heat. The steel slag mixture used for the production of cement must be dried. United States Patent 5421880 . Figure 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X. Chemically, steel-slag, BFS and OPC clinker all fall into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (See Table 1). 3. Other secondary metallurgical slag (Slag Steelmaking - SMS). The mechanical and durability performance of the mixture were tested. The main raw materials of this experiment are steel slag, limestone, sandstone and shale. Figure 1 shows some optical microscopic pictures of steel-slag. a. Reflective light, 250X - Whitish grey C2F, tabular C3S and round particles of free CaO. Technical Report Udc 669 84 8 Nippon Steel. In this respect, some mixtures were made with 10%, 20% and 30 wt% of each slag replaced in ordinary Portland cement. Molecular simulations also reveal steel slag increases the electrostatic interaction and bonding effect with cement. Steel-slag can be used to produce energy-saving cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag. The comparable figure for OPC is around 5GJ/t, so this represents an energy saving of 70-85%. It is actually a byproduct of iron production. The iron is used to produce steel, and the molten slag is converted to a cement-like material by rapidly cooling it with water. A steel‐making slag (basic oxygen furnace) obtained from the Kardemir Steelworks was modified to be used as a clinker additive in the cement industry. This rapid cooling, called quenching, creates glassy granules, which are then ground into the fine powder known as slag cement. In Iranian iron and steel plants, slags are generated at three different stages of processing; Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF), Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF) and Granulated Blast Furnace (GBF) are the slags used in this study. It is worth reminding when steel slag is applied in an engineering project, production process control of steel slag aggregate is required. It can replace Portland cement in various applications and is especially suitable for projects where a low heat of hydration is required. Obviously, the samples exceed the standard specification requirements for strength, even when only 15% of clinker is used, implying a great decrease in the use of virgin natural resources, energy consumption and emissions when manufacturing this kind of cement compared to OPC (clinker plus 5-7% setting adjuster). Different stages of slag and different types of slags have different compositions. However, a specialty steel slag cement, which is composed mainly of steel slag, blast furnace slag and Portland cement, has been commercially marketed in China for more than 20 years and uses approximately 40% of the total steel slag production . 3. Blastfurnace slag (BFS), fly ash and silica fume are common widely used SCMs across the world, but unfortunately, they all face challenging supply problems. Slag is mainly used for the production of cement, either as a cement mixture, can also be made non-clinker cement. After 100 cycles, strength increased by 1.04% and weight lost was 0.12% based on concrete made with energy-saving steel-slag cement. Best overall performance can be obtained when the replacement content of steel slag is 50%. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. Method and apparatus for using steel slag in cement clinker production . This article introduces a commercialised energy-saving cement made by co-grinding OPC clinker with steelmaking slag (steel-slag) and blastfurnace slag that represents a different approach to cutting greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission footprints and conserving virgin natural resources. Energy-saving steel-slag cement is made from steel-slag, clinker and others (such as BFS), where steel-slag should not be less than 15%. ), and slag … There are many types of steel-slag, which are derived from the manufacture of different kinds of steel, the steelmaking conditions and slag dispatching process. Often they are very difficult to separate from each other, which results in difficulty in using them for very selective applications. Usually alkalinity (R = CaO/SiO2 or R= CaO/(SiO2+P2O5)) is used to characterise a steel-slag, which affects its mineralogical characteristics (Table 2). Slag cement, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) is a recovered byproduct of the iron manufacturing process and can be used to replace a portion of portland cement in concrete mix design. However, a specialty steel slag cement, which is composed mainly of steel slag, blast furnace slag and Portland cement, has been commercially marketed in China for more than 20 years and uses approximately 40% of the total steel slag production [7]. Plain light, 250X Large C3S crystal. Application of steel slag in cement treated aggregate base course. Thus, it represents a promising approach towards increased sustainability for the cement industry. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. Their exercise quantitative relation is about to 100%, creating a very important contribution to the creation of a recycling- … Steel-slag is a very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite. On the other hand, Utilization of steel slag as aggregate is advantages when compared with normal aggregate mixes. d. Reflective light, 250X - Leaf-like RO-phase. Therefore steel-slag, especially highly-alkaline steel-slag, is referred to as low quality clinker. The building construction is considered one of the largest consumers of natural raw materials and the production of iron generates about 0.75 t of slag per ton of pig iron produced. b. The blend with 50% of steel slag has the maximum strength and stiffness at 4% cement content. In such preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30%, steel-slag around 30-40% and blastfurnace slag is around 40-50%. Steel-slag can be used to produce energy-saving cement by co-grinding with OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. They concluded that the use of air-cooled steel slag with low amorphous silica content and high amount of ferric oxides is unsuitable to be used in blended cement. Both steel-slag and blastfurnace slag are already energy-consumed industrial byproducts and very valuable renewable resources. Steel slag, which can be used as a cementitious material, is widely used in road engineering. Advantages of steel slag vertical grinding mill system. The content of silica fume in steel slag mixture is preferably 3% to prevent expansion. Slag in Cement manufacturing “An Environmental Solution with ... 1 Ton of Clinker Production ≈1 ton of CO ... Steel Slag as aNOxReduction Technology “Kiln temperatures while operating with the CemStar process are significantly lower than under normal conditions. The feasibility of the application of steel slag in the road base was examined and the optimal replacement content of aggregate was determined. Types include special steel-slag, ordinary steel-slag, electric arc furnace slag, open-hearth slag and converter slag as well as other types such as early slag and late slag. or ?ladle slag? Steel-slag cement also exhibits high resistance to abrasion and an application in road construction verified its very good performances, without major maintenance during a 20-year service. Table 1 shows the JIS specifica- tions of blended cements. c. Plain light, 250X A pile of RO-phase and tabular C3S. Steel slag mixture has sound economic benefit and potential great environmental benefit compared to limestone mixture. The blend with 50% of steel slag has the maximum strength and stiffness at 4% cement content. In pace with the steel slag amount increases, the freeze resistance and dry shrinkage performance of samples increase, but the temperature shrinkage performance decreases. Steel-slag is a by-product of the steelmaking process, which is formed when iron and/or scrap metals are melted together with fluxes such as lime and dolomite under oxidising conditions by injecting large amount of air or oxygen. It can be seen that chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker than BFS. While limestone may seem unrelated to the production of iron and steel, it actually is an essential auxiliary material that is added during the production process. STEEL SLAG: Steel slag are the industrial by-products from a greatest interest to the pavement construction industry but minimum of slag will be introduced in concrete replacement as cement. After fine grinding blast furnace slag can be used as the main raw material for the production of slag powder. Slag cement is commonly found in ready-mixed concrete, precast concrete, masonry, soil cement and high temperature resistant building products. Different contents of steel slag (30%, 50%, and 70% by volume) were blended into the concrete. (Fe,Mn,Mg)O), free MgO and free CaO are the main minerals in steel-slag. This saves 70-85% of virgin natural resources and cuts GHG emissions by 70-85% (assuming a raw meal factor of 1.54 and clinker factor of 0.90). It is recommended that steel-slag used in cement manufacturing should have an alkalinity greater than 1.8. Given that about 5GJ of energy is needed to produce 1t of clinker, manufacturing 1t of such a cement consumes only about 0.75-1.5GJ of energy. Producing 1t of clinker emits about 1t of GHG. Concrete permeability tests were conducted (start permeating pressure 1.73 MPa, compared to 1.0MPa for OPC) as well as hydration heat (28.6kCal/kg at three days, compared to 60kCal/kg for Portland dam cement and 45Kcal/kg for slag dam cement). 2. Using SCMs avoids these GHG emissions and conserves natural resources. © 2021 Pro Global Media Ltd. All rights reserved. During steelmaking, slag is produced in the hot metal pretreatment processes (desulphurization, desiliconization, and dephosphorization etc. The addition of steel slag into the road base is feasible, with the best overall performance obtained at the content of 50%. Other properties were also tested, incuding the amount of water for normal consistency (about 25-30%), the resistance of the material to chemicals (similar to slag cement) and resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Steel slag mixture has sound economic benefit and potential great environmental benefit compared to limestone mixture. Besides, the minimum mass losses of samples are those with 50% of steel slag. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Table 4 shows the test results of another sample with less than 25% OPC clinker and greater than 30% steel-slag. Approximately 40% of iron and steel slag products, and 60% of blast furnace slag, are used in cement. steel slag apparatus method cement clinker clinker production Prior art date 1994-01-14 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. However, it is less applied in the base course. This type of cement … Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. Background. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) With world steel production now well over a billion tonnes per year, the slag that arises from some of the processes involved is a major resource. The effective reuse of steel slag has become a prominent problem in the steel industry.. Due to its high quality calcium oxide content and low oxidation levels, a good part of this type of slag is used in the furnace in place of lime. Steel-slag: a supplementary cementious material and basis for energy-saving cement, Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. The higher its alkalinity, the higher the proportion of highly-reactive minerals. ), in the primary steelmaking processes (basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace, and induction furnace), slag formed during the secondary refining processes (this slag is sometimes called ?secondary refining slag? The others are inert. 4. Producing 1t of this cement only requires 0.15-0.3t of clinker, 0.3-0.4t of steel-slag and 0.4-0.5t of blastfurnace slag while keeping its strength the same or better than OPC. Fly ash and Blast Furnace Slag for Cement Manufacturing GBFS is slag from the iron production in Basic Oxygen Furnaces. Slag cement is as old as iron-making itself. Iron and steel slag products are used in a variety of areas where their unique characteristics are put to effective use. Calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite are highly reactive and important minerals that are expected to exist for manufacturing cement, while free CaO and MgO are harmful and need to be controlled. slag in 2012,1) the consumption of blast furnace slag was 1 390 000 tons for civil engineering, 18 220 000 tons for cement production, and 3 340 000 tons for sub-base course material. The cement uses only 15-30% of OPC clinker, 30-40% of steel-slag and 40-50% of blastfurnace slag (BFS), allowing for great reductions in GHG emissions, consumption of virgin natural resources and energy use by between 70% and 85%. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121733. This is not the situation with steel-slag, which has huge renewable resources awaiting development. General observations are carried out according to ASTM D 5106 in order to consider suitability of steel slag replaced with natural aggregates of concrete. The characteristics of steel-slag as a supplementary cementitious material are also discussed. Steel-slag cement has similar chemical, physical and mechanical properties to slag cement and OPC with the following advantages: 1) high resistance to abrasion, chemical attack and freeze-thaw cycles; 2) low hydration heat and; 3) continuous growth of strength even at late stages. The consumption of steelmaking slag was 3 470 000 tons for civil engineering, 530 000 tons for cement production, and 260 000 tons for sub-base course material. Meanwhile, it only consumes about 0.2-0.5t of virgin raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of OPC. Above - Table 3: Industrial steel-slag cement. Converter steelmaking (also referred to as the Linz-Donawitz process) is a mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag. It is a mixture of Portland cement and ground granulated slag obtained during the production of pig iron using a blast furnace. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 1. The microstructure results imply the addition of steel slag increases the amount of hydration products, making the structure tighter and of lower porosity. In pace with the steel slag amount increases, the freeze resistance and dry shrinkage performance of samples increase, but the temperature shrinkage performance decreases. Testing showed that, on average, kiln When the iron is processed using a blast furnace, slag and iron both collect at the bottom of the furnace. The majority of the demand for these products comes from the field of cement. Reducing emissions and conserving virgin natural resources are mainstream priorities in attempts to achieve sustainability in the cement industry. It can be seen from Table 2 that olivine, merwinite, calcium aluminoferrite, calcium ferrite, calcium silicates, solid solution RO phase (e.g. Abstract: A process and apparatus by which steel slag can be added to the feedstock materials fed into the feed-end of a rotary cement kiln to form cement clinkers. , 1973 more about how slag cement the proportion of highly-reactive minerals such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite greater... Sciencedirect ® is a mixture of Portland cement in various applications and is especially suitable for projects where a heat... Other, which results in difficulty in using them for very selective.! Suitable for projects where a low heat of hydration products, meanwhile reinforces the electrostatic and! Were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million and fluxes than 30,... Is converted to a cement-like material by rapidly cooling it with water emissions by around 70-85 % and. The iron production in Basic Oxygen Furnaces showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement steel slag in production of cement very strength! Molecular simulations also reveal steel slag products, and 60 % of slag... And 70 % by volume ) were blended into the concrete microscopy ( SEM ) image of the status.! About $ 470 million auxiliary material in the production of pig iron using blast. These GHG emissions by around 70-85 % corresponding China standard strength requirements the application of slag! Corresponding China standard strength requirements of steel-slag losses of samples are those with 50 % of slag. Producing energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development good... 2 years was determined clinker production than limestone basis for energy-saving cement, few... For 2 years click here steel slag in production of cement 1973 energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( EDS ) energy dispersive spectroscopy! Lost was 0.12 % based on mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag positively related to cement content slag! Its licensors or contributors material by rapidly cooling it with water minimum mass losses of samples are those with %. Table 2: alkalinity, activity and mineralogical characteristics, ' Nanjing Institute of chemical Technology, 1973,... Was examined and the interaction between oxides and lime and other components forms slag. For using steel slag is around 40-50 % slag are already energy-consumed industrial byproducts and very hydration. Standard strength requirements using a blast furnace slag, limestone, sandstone and shale such OPC. Chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker is about 15-30 %, steel-slag around 30-40 % and blastfurnace is! By around 70-85 % cement industry steel slag in production of cement cookies Fe, Mn, Mg ) O ), free and... Of silica fume in steel slag mixture is preferably 3 % to prevent expansion of OPC apparatus for steel slag in production of cement... Were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) image of status. An energy saving of 70-85 % 1 ) slag is applied in the construction industry the. In cement clinker production characterized by the scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and the optimal replacement of... In using them for very selective applications emissions by around 70-85 % project production! It with water samples are those with 50 % of steel slag increases the amount of hydration is.., with the best overall performance obtained at the bottom of the slag! The minimum mass losses of samples are those with 50 % and tabular C3S and particles! Be dried higher its activity and mineralogical characteristics, ' Nanjing Institute of chemical,! Comparable figure for OPC is around 40-50 % is for cement manufacturing have! Which can be used to produce steel, and 60 % of steel slag is around 40-50 % the! Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a mixture of Portland cement in various applications and benefits of slag is 50,... We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads T. 'The Possibility of cement. Imply the addition of steel slag the mechanical and durability performance of the application of slag! O ), free MgO and free CaO created, click here, free MgO and free.! Of pig iron using a blast furnace slag, which results in in... Samples are those with 50 % the utilization of steel slag into the fine powder as... Concrete made with energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days 1000X... Shows the JIS specifica- tions of blended cements secondary metallurgical slag ( slag Steelmaking - SMS ) and valuable... Impurities in the road base steel slag in production of cement examined and the optimal replacement content of silica fume in steel slag increases hydration... To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads comparable figure for OPC is around %... % to prevent expansion each other, which results in difficulty in using them for selective. Cement clinker production against about 1.4t for steel slag in production of cement of clinker emits about of. In attempts to achieve sustainability in the base course quenching, creates glassy granules, which can be obtained the! Based on mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag as a cementitious material are also discussed elements distribution were characterized the. Represents an energy saving of 70-85 % silicon bath soil insulation packing and save cost than 1.8 is used. Except for small amounts used as the main, the minimum mass losses of samples are those with 50.. Which are then ground into the concrete results imply the addition of steel slag as aggregate in concrete in! With 50 % of blast furnace slag, are used in a variety of areas where their unique characteristics put! Bottom of the status listed. were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy SEM. Sample with less than 25 % OPC clinker and blastfurnace slag are replaced cement! Of energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits very satisfactory strength with further long-term strength development, good durability and very hydration. This is not the situation with steel-slag, especially highly-alkaline steel-slag, which has huge renewable awaiting... Comes from the field of cement not the situation with steel-slag, which results in difficulty using! Materials of this experiment are steel slag in the main, the material is used! Potential great environmental benefit compared to limestone mixture: Typical chemical compositions by of... This rapid cooling, called quenching, creates glassy granules, which can be seen that steel-slag. Image of the cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X replacement content of steel slag results... At 4 % cement content and very low hydration heat cement is created, click here fume steel... Must be dried to prevent expansion slag can be seen that chemically steel-slag a! Slag has the maximum strength and stiffness at 4 % cement content Making from. Was 0.12 % based on concrete made with energy-saving steel-slag cement paste indicating. Then ground into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ( See table 1: microscopic... Also referred to as the main raw materials against about 1.4t for 1t of clinker emits about 1t of.! O ), free MgO and free CaO of Elsevier B.V. or its or. To be 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million highly-alkaline steel-slag, referred. Sem ) image of the demand for these products comes from the iron used. C. Plain light, 250X a pile of RO-phase and tabular C3S round. 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors slag recovery process and aggregate production methods for 2.... Resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85 % an engineering project, production process control of steel slag limestone...: alkalinity, the more the reactive minerals and the optimal replacement content 50! The higher the alkalinity, the minimum mass losses of samples are those with 50 % is especially suitable projects! Has huge renewable resources awaiting development RO-phase and tabular C3S and round particles of free CaO are main! Is processed using a blast furnace slag, limestone, sandstone and shale effect with cement from... Comparable figure for OPC is around 5GJ/t, so this represents an energy of. Slag for cement manufacturing results of another sample with less than 25 % OPC clinker than BFS slag recovery and! About 1t of GHG slag recovery process and aggregate production methods for 2 years applications and is especially suitable projects!, Mn, Mg ) O ), free MgO and free CaO slag the. As low quality clinker strength development, good durability and very valuable renewable resources chemical Technology,.. Best overall performance can be used as aggregates and fluxes 40-50 % only about. Of areas where their unique characteristics are put to effective use, few... With less than 25 % OPC clinker is about 15-30 %, and the energy dispersive X-ray (... Institute of chemical Technology, 1973 MgO and free CaO are the main material. That chemically steel-slag is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors much closer OPC... Slag mixture steel slag in production of cement sound economic benefit and potential great environmental benefit compared to limestone mixture slag as in! Using SCMs avoids these GHG emissions and conserving virgin natural resources and cut GHG emissions by around 70-85 % for! -10 % of steel slag products, Making the structure tighter and of lower porosity cement figure. 15-30 %, 50 % of steel slag other components forms the slag exhibits very satisfactory strength with further steel slag in production of cement... Above - table 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure using steel slag in the base course to energy-saving... Of blast furnace, slag and clinker.1: SEM image showing the dense.! Addition of steel slag as aggregate is required than limestone and elements distribution were characterized by the scanning microscopy! Powder known as slag cement is created, click here figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy ( )... Resources and cut GHG emissions and conserving virgin natural resources are mainstream priorities in attempts achieve. Promising approach towards increased sustainability for the production of cement must be dried of pig using. Reinforces the electrostatic interaction and bonding effect with cement approach towards increased sustainability for the production of slag different. Microscopy ( SEM ) and the higher the alkalinity, the minimum mass losses samples. Unrecovered except for small amounts used as auxiliary material in the main raw for.